In the fast-paced world of software development, manual testing continues to play a crucial role in ensuring the quality and reliability of applications.
As technology evolves, so do the skills required for a successful career in manual testing. And when it comes to landing that dream job, preparation is key.
In this comprehensive guide, we will explore a wide range of manual testing interview questions, from the basic to the advanced level, to help you crack the code and impress your potential employers.
So, let's get started on this journey to unravel the essential manual testing interview questions and boost your chances of success in the competitive job market.
- What are the common questions asked in an interview for manual testing?
- What are some basic manual testing interview questions?
- What are some senior manual testing interview questions?
8 Manual Testing Common Interview Questions and Answers
Common manual testing interview questions and answers provide valuable insights into a candidate's experience and capabilities.
Rooted in real-world projects and scenario-based manual testing interview questions, these questions will help you understand what the hiring managers are looking for.
Prepare yourself for success in testing interviews by familiarizing yourself with common manual testing interview questions and their corresponding answers.
Differentiate between functional and non-functional testing.
Functional testing focuses on testing the application's features and functionalities, ensuring they meet the specified requirements. Non-functional testing, on the other hand, evaluates aspects like performance, usability, security, and scalability.
Why is it impossible to test a program thoroughly or 100% bug-free?
Complete testing to achieve a completely bug-free program is unattainable since it's impossible to foresee and test all potential input combinations, environments, and states the program may encounter.
Is it true that we can do system testing at any stage?
No, system testing is usually conducted towards the development process's conclusion, following integration and user acceptance testing.
What is a test case design, and what are its different techniques?
Test case design involves creating a set of test cases to ensure maximum test coverage. Techniques like Equivalence Partitioning, Boundary Value Analysis, and Decision Table Testing aid in designing effective test cases.
How to determine the right time to conclude testing?
Determining when to stop testing involves considering the:
- Desired quality levels
- Adherence to timeline & budget
- Number of defects found
- Completion of test cases
- Project risk factors
Once these criteria are met, you can conclude the testing phase.
How do you test a product with unfinalized requirements?
- Firstly, we would conduct requirements-gathering meetings involving all stakeholders to gain a clear understanding of the product's purpose and desired outcomes.
- Then, we break down the project into manageable user stories.
- Next, we prioritize these user stories and assign them to sprints for development.
Throughout the project, we employ various testing techniques such as unit tests, integration tests, user acceptance tests, and system testing to continuously evaluate the product. Additionally, as the requirements evolve, we adapt our tests accordingly to ensure the product aligns with the desired outcomes.
Can you explain the concept of 'configuration management'?
Sure. It is the process of effectively managing, monitoring and governing changes made to the configuration of software, hardware, or network systems. It plays a vital role in maintaining the integrity, security, stability, and compliance of a system with organizational policies. The key objectives of configuration management are to ensure system reliability, uphold system availability, and enhance system performance.
What are some key test case best practices to follow?
These are the 10 practices for creating effective test cases:
- Craft clear, concise, and focused test cases
- Validate software functionality comprehensively through test cases
- Ensure test cases cover all specified requirements
- Develop reusable test cases that can be automated if needed
- Create independent test cases that do not rely on each other
- Use descriptive and meaningful names for test cases
- Document test case results for future reference
- Design modular test cases for reusability
- Conduct reviews to ensure the accuracy and completeness of test cases
- Follow a standardized format for documenting test cases
12 Manual Testing Basic Interview Questions
Strong fundamentals form the backbone of any successful endeavor, and manual testing is no exception.
Check out these 12 basic manual testing interview questions and answers to establish a solid footing and confidently navigate through the initial stages of your manual testing interview questions.
What is quality control, and how does it differ from quality assurance?
Quality control involves running a program to identify defects and ensure software meets stakeholder requirements. On the other hand, quality assurance focuses on applying correct methods, techniques, and processes to deliver high-quality results.
What are the advantages of manual testing?
- Allows testers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the software by exploring it manually
- Testers can adapt their testing approach based on real-time observations, making it flexible to changing requirements
- Leverages human intuition to uncover complex issues that automated testing may overlook.
- Enables exploratory testing, where testers can creatively explore different scenarios and uncover new defects.
- Effective for evaluating the usability aspects of the software, including user interface, user experience, and user interactions.
Now, what are the drawbacks to manual testing?
According to me, 4 drawbacks linger in manual testing:
- Prone to human errors
- Time-consuming for complex tasks
- Higher long-term costs
- Difficult to replicate manual testing process due to lack of recording capability
How does a bug differ from a defect?
A bug refers to a software fault identified during testing, whereas a defect signifies a deviation between expected and actual results, identified by the developer post-release.
Can you explain the distinction between an error and a failure?
An error denotes a program's inability to run or compile during development, whereas a failure indicates an issue discovered by end-users with the software's functionality.
What is GUI testing?
GUI testing focuses on examining the interaction between software and end-users, specifically the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
What is the difference between smoke and sanity testing?
Smoke testing, also known as build verification testing, verifies if the most critical functionalities of an application are working. Sanity testing, on the other hand, focuses on specific areas or functionality to ensure stability before further testing.
Explain positive and negative testing.
Positive testing validates that the software functions correctly with valid inputs, while negative testing ensures the system handles invalid or unexpected inputs gracefully.
What is regression testing, and when is it performed?
Regression testing involves retesting the modified or impacted parts of the software to ensure that the changes do not introduce new defects or impact existing functionalities.
Describe the concept of test data management and test environment setup.
Test data management involves creating and managing the data required for testing. It includes selecting representative data, creating test datasets, and ensuring data privacy and security. Test environment setup refers to preparing the necessary hardware, software, and network configurations for testing.
What is ad-hoc testing?
Ad-hoc testing is an informal testing technique where testers explore the application without predefined test cases or scripts. It is useful for identifying defects that may not be covered by formal test cases.
What is the significance of documentation in manual testing?
Documentation plays a vital role in manual testing as it ensures comprehensive test coverage and accurate results. It serves as an audit trail for evaluating past test outcomes and identifying areas of enhancement. Furthermore, documentation acts as a reference for other testers unfamiliar with the system or application being tested, facilitating better collaboration and knowledge sharing.
6 Advanced Level Manual Testing Interview Questions
Explain the concept of test-driven development (TDD) and its benefits in software testing.
Test-driven development (TDD) is a development approach where tests are written before writing the actual code. It helps ensure code quality, encourages modular and maintainable code, and provides a safety net for refactoring. By following TDD, developers can catch defects early, improve code coverage, and promote collaboration between testers and developers.
Explain the principles of risk-based testing.
Risk-based testing prioritizes testing efforts based on the areas of the system that pose the highest risk. By performing risk analysis, critical components are identified, and the probability and impact of potential failures are determined. Testing resources are then allocated accordingly, ensuring maximum coverage in high-risk areas. Here’s a real-life example: In a banking application, high-risk functionalities like money transfers and transaction history are thoroughly tested to avoid financial loss or data corruption.
What is exploratory testing, and when is it beneficial?
Exploratory testing is a simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution approach where testers design and execute tests on the fly. It is beneficial when requirements are unclear, time is limited, or testers want to discover hidden defects. Exploratory testing allows increased tester creativity and adaptability to uncover issues that might go unnoticed through scripted testing.
How do you ensure test coverage in manual testing?
Test coverage refers to the extent to which the system or application has been tested. Various techniques, such as requirement-based coverage, code-based coverage, and decision-based coverage, ensure comprehensive test coverage. Traceability matrices are crucial for mapping test cases to requirements, ensuring that all specified functionalities are adequately tested.
Discuss your experience in test estimation and test planning.
Test estimation involves predicting the effort, resources, and schedule required for testing activities. Test planning encompasses defining the test strategy, identifying test objectives, and outlining test schedules. For test estimation, the Three-Point Estimation technique can be used, providing optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates to calculate a real effort. Factors considered during test planning include test prioritization based on risks, business value, and critical functionalities.
How do you handle conflicts or disagreements within a testing team?
To handle conflicts within a testing team, I prioritize effective communication and conflict resolution. I employ strategies like active listening, empathy, and seeking win-win solutions to promote collaboration and resolve disagreements.
FAQs on Manual Testing Interview Questions
What are the most commonly asked manual testing interview questions?
Some of the most commonly asked manual testing interview questions are:
- What is a test plan and what does it include?
- What is meant by test coverage?
- Is it possible to achieve 100% testing coverage? How would you ensure it?
- What are unit testing and integration testing?
- Can we do system testing at any stage?
How to prepare for a manual testing interview?
To prepare for a manual testing interview, study fundamental concepts, practice commonly asked questions, and gain hands-on experience with testing techniques. To attain deeper insights into real-world questions, how to frame your answers or appear for mock interviews, check out Hiration’s ChatGPT-powered Interview Prep with a comprehensive list of questions across all over the internet on 180+ profiles.
For any queries or concerns, feel free to drop a mail at support(at)hiration(dot)com.